Driving licence categories and codes

Have you ever wondered what the codes on the back of your driving licence mean? They provide a wealth of information about what types of vehicles you can drive and the conditions you must meet to get behind the wheel. 

Have you ever wondered what the codes on the back of your driving licence mean? They provide a wealth of information about what types of vehicles you can drive and the conditions you must meet to get behind the wheel. 

Julie Daniels
Motor insurance expert
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Last Updated 29 SEPTEMBER 2022

What are driving licence categories?

If you look at the back of your photocard licence, you’ll see a printed table of categories and codes. It’s on both provisional and full driving licences. 

  • Column 9 features tiny transport images, letters and numbers showing you the types of vehicles you may be allowed to drive. In total there are 26 driving licence categories, covering everything from mopeds to buses. 
  • Column 10 tells you the date you can drive these vehicles from. 
  • Column 11 tells you the date you’re no longer entitled to drive these vehicles. 
  • Column 12 has numbers that denote any restrictions or conditions, such as whether you need glasses or contact lenses to drive. 

You can’t drive any category of vehicle that has lines shown instead of dates. 

If you live in Northern Ireland, driving licence categories are different. You can check the latest rules on nidirect.

What can I drive with a standard UK licence?

If you’ve passed your car driving test, you’re qualified to drive vehicles in the following categories: 

  • Category AM - You can drive two or three-wheeled vehicles with a speed of between 25km/h (15.5mph) and 45km/h (28mph). Mopeds and scooters fall into this bracket. This category also includes light quad bikes.
  • Category B - If you passed your test before 1 January 1997, a category B driving licence allows you to drive a vehicle and trailer with a combined weight of up to 8,250kg. This could be a car towing a caravan, for example. You’re also allowed to drive a minibus. 

If you passed your test after 1 January 1997, the law is slightly different. You can drive vehicles of up to 3,500kg with up to eight passenger seats and with a trailer of up to 750kg. You can also tow heavier trailers, as long as the combined weight of the trailer and towing vehicle is no more than 3,500kg. 

Category B auto or B with restriction code 78 - You can drive a category B vehicle – but only an automatic one. You can’t drive a manual category B vehicle. 

For holders of very old green paper licences - Your old licence might still show category A – but the categories changed in 2013 and this is similar to what’s now called category B. The back of your licence gives a fuller description of the vehicles you are entitled to drive. 

You can compare old and new driving licence categories to see any relevant changes on the GOV.UK website.

Other vehicles you can drive with a full UK driving licence

You’ll see some lower-case letters in italics at the bottom of your photo licence showing you the type of other vehicles you can drive. These could include: 

f – a tractor (yes, really – a standard category-B licence entitles you to drive a tractor primarily used for agriculture or forestry) 

k – a mowing machine or pedestrian-controlled vehicle that you walk behind 

l – an electrically-propelled vehicle, for example, a milk float (mostly only seen on older licences) 

q – two and three-wheeled vehicles without pedals, with an engine size of no more than 50cc – this category also includes trial e-scooters. 

Did you know?  

You don’t need a driving licence for electric bikes, mobility scooters or powered wheelchairs. 

What other driving licence categories are there?

To drive some vehicles, you may need to take an additional test before you can get on the road. 

In some cases, those with older licences won’t have to undergo any extra training as their standard driving licence will cover them. But even if training isn’t compulsory, it’s probably a good idea to do it for safety. Here’s a sample of some of the different licence categories. 

Mopeds and motorcycles

  • Category A1 licence - You can drive light motorbikes with an engine size of up to 125cc and a power output of 11kW.
  • Category A2 licence - You can drive motorbikes with a power output up to 35kW and a power to weight ratio not more than 0.2kW/kg plus vehicles in A1. 
  • Category A licence - This is a full motorcycle licence. It allows you to ride motorbikes with a power output of more than 35kW. You can also drive bikes in categories A1 and A2.

Cars and light vehicles 

  • Category B1 licence - The category B1 driving licence includes motor vehicles with four wheels weighing up to 400kg without goods or 550kg with goods. This category is more common on older driving licences.
  • Category BE licence - This lets you drive a vehicle with a trailer. The size of the trailer depends on when you received your driving licence. If it’s before 19 January 2013, you can tow any size trailer. If it’s on or after this date, you can tow a trailer up to 3,500kg.

Vans and commercial vehicles

  • Category C1 licence - The C1 driving licence lets you drive vehicles weighing between 3,500kg and 7,500kg, such as large vans and ambulances. You’re also allowed a trailer of up to 750kg. 
  • Category C licence - A category C licence lets you drive heavy goods vehicles over 3,500kg, with a trailer up to 750kg. 

Minibuses and coaches 

  • Category D1 licence - The D1 driving licence lets you drive minibuses with no more than 16 passenger seats or maximum length of eight metres. You can also tow a trailer of up to 750kg.
  • Category D licence - You can drive any bus or coach with more than eight passenger seats. You’re also allowed to tow a trailer less than 750kg. 

You’ll find a full breakdown of all the various driving licence categories on the government’s website.

What are driving licence codes?

As well as categories, you’ll also see numbered codes on your licence. These tell you what conditions you must meet before you’re legally allowed to drive. 

You can find a complete list of UK driving licence codes on the government website, but here are some of the most common: 

  • 01 – eyesight correction. This means you can’t legally drive unless you’re wearing glasses or contact lenses 
  • 02 – hearing/communication aid 
  • 31 – pedal adaptations and pedal safeguards 
  • 40 – modified steering 
  • 45 – motorbikes only with sidecar 
  • 78 – restricted to vehicles with automatic transmission 
  • 101 – not for hire or reward (that is, not to make a profit) 
  • 111 – limited to 16 passenger seats 
  • 115 – organ donor 
  • 119 – weight limit for vehicle does not apply. 

How can I check what categories of vehicle I can drive?

The categories you can drive are set out on the on the back of your driving licence. But if you need a fuller explanation, you can check what vehicles your current licence allows you to drive on GOV.UK. You’ll need to know your driving licence number, your National Insurance (NI) number and your postcode to get the information. This tool will also allow you to share your licence information – for example, with a potential employer or a car hire company.

What happens if I drive a vehicle I’m not entitled to?

If you drive a vehicle that’s not covered by the categories and codes on your licence, you could be fined and receive points. Your car insurance might also be invalid.

How can I upgrade an automatic car driving licence to a manual one?

If your licence is only for automatic cars, you can upgrade it by passing a driving test in a manual car. 

You can start learning to drive a manual car at any time. You don’t need to apply for another provisional licence. 

You must follow all the usual rules when you’re learning to drive in a manual car. This includes displaying L plates. 

You won’t have to take a new theory test, but you’ll need to book a practical driving test by phone with the DVSA (Driver and Vehicle Standards Agency). You can’t book online. If you pass you can then drive manual cars too. If you fail, you can continue to drive an automatic car but won’t be able to drive a manual car – other than as a learner driver until you pass. 

What do I need to do if I want to drive another category of vehicle?

If you want to drive something in a different category, you’ll usually need to get a provisional entitlement, take lessons and a driving test for higher categories of vehicle. For example, if you have a car driving licence you should be able to get a provisional licence to drive a lorry or a bus. 

If you pass a higher category driving test, you may also be automatically entitled to drive lower category vehicles. So, for example, if you pass the A licence motorbike test, you’ll also be able to ride a moped or scooter. 

You have to apply by post to add entitlements to a full or provisional licence. You can’t do this online. 

See more on adding categories to your driving licence on GOV.UK.

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